Perpetual Power Solutions for WSN

A Market Dynamics Report

Published: Oct. 2008

Contributors: Mareca Hatler, Darryl Gurganious, and Mike Ritter Ph.D.

Pages: 103 (75 figures, 25 tables)

Table of Contents


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Synopsis:

With more than one hundred million Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes to be deployed over the next five years, the quest for improved power sources is intensifying.  

Advances such as mesh networking enables large scale, self-configuring wireless sensor networks.  The power needs of these wireless sensors is the current biggest impediment that keeps them from becoming completely autonomous, forcing them to be either tethered to an external power source or have lifecycles that are curtailed by batteries.  

Perpetual power solutions such as energy harvesting, super capacitors and rechargeable thin-film batteries promise to reduce labor costs and the environmental impact from disposing millions of batteries.  ON World calculates that the labor cost from changing batteries for wireless sensors deployed worldwide in the top six markets between 2006 and 2015 (assuming no harvested energy is used) will be worth $1.1 billion. 

Companies such as AdaptivEnergy, Cymbet, EnOcean, KCF, Konarka, and Perpetuum are developing perpetual power solutions for enabling truly autonomous sensing and control devices.

In this report, we present and analyze the market opportunity for perpetual power solutions for Wireless Sensor Networking (WSN). It includes 5-year forecasts, return on investment data, in-depth competitor analysis, and dozens of scenarios using ON World's wsnSimulator™ that illustrates the market potential for perpetual power solutions as well as simulating the power and performance of popular WSN radios/protocols such as 802.15.4, TSMP, Sampled Listening, Low Power Routing/Sleepy Mesh, XMesh, ZigBee, WiFi, Z-Wave, and proprietary.

 

Primary Research:

This report is based on over 400 surveys including the following:

Vendors & Experts
77 WSN vendors, industry experts, and power source manufacturers.

End Users:
326 end users in industrial, building, professional installer, and agriculture markets.

 

Free Executive Summary:
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Report Overview:

Based on over 400 interviews with vendors, suppliers, and end users, this report includes the following:

Market Drivers:

  • Market forces, drivers, and inhibitors analysis for wireless sensor networks and energy harvesting in each of the following target markets: Industrial, Commercial buildings, Residential, Medical, Structural, Agriculture

Technology Forces:

  • Extensive technology forces evaluation on energy harvesting, storage alternatives, and challenges and opportunities for combining these with wireless sensor network systems.
  • Energy harvesting power sources: Solar, Thermal, Inductive/Electromagnetic, and Piezoelectric
  • Dozens of power and performance scenarios using ON World’s proprietary wsnSimulator™ tool comparing radios/protocols such as CSMA, TSMP, Sampled Listening, ZigBee, Z-Wave, WiFi, and EnOcean.

Market Size Forecasts:  

For each of six target market:

  • WSN Units by power source (batteries vs. AC) (2007 to 2012)
  • WSN Units for self-powered nodes (batteries vs. energy harvesting) (2007 to 2012)
  • Labor costs from changing batteries (2006-2015)

Primary Research:

  • 326 end users in industrial, building, professional installer, and agriculture
  • 47 WSN vendors and industry experts on current power source needs and energy harvesting awareness, costs, and most likely target markets
  • Recent interviews with 30+ WSN companies and power source manufacturers

Value system:

  • In-depth analysis on 31 companies in the following product segments:
    • Components
    • Modules
    • Power Sources
    • WSN Systems
  • Fundamentals: business model, development phase, offerings, partners, financials, targeted applications
  • Disruption & sustainability evaluation
  • Technology dynamics: radios, protocols, wireless integration, power management, intellectual property

About ON World's wsnSimulator™:

One of the challenges that researchers and developers have with WSN is testing the enormous amount and variations of wireless sensing components and modules that make up a WSN node.  In order to better analyze the power and performance needs of individual nodes in specific applications, ON World created the wsnSimulator™.  This simulator interchanges WSN node hardware components, payloads, processors, sensors, harvesters, and batteries while factoring in unique operational parameters for each of the fore mentioned parts. 

The wsnSimulator™ runs these virtual hardware nodes within one of several WSN networks such as CSMA, TSMP, Sampled Listening, ZigBee, Z-Wave, WiFi, Bluetooth, and EnOcean. The wsnSimulator™ factors in neighborhood nodes and overlapping networks to analyze transmission collisions, latency, and dropped packets among other network factors. With this tool we have the capability of simulating advanced multi- thousand node WSN deployments as well as single node controllers, gateways, and end nodes.


Vendors & Experts:

ON World surveyed more than 400 companies and industry experts for this report. Organizations mentioned or profiled in this report include the following:

Energy Harvesting Technologies: AdaptivEnergy, Advanced Cerametrics, Advanced Linear Devices, Ambient Micro, AmbioSystems LLC, Clare, Inc., EnOcean, Ferro Solutions, KCF, Konarka, Technologies, Micropelt, Mide, Noliac, Perpetua, Perpetuum, Thermo Life...

Batteries/Thin film/Fuel Cells: Akermin, Cymbet, Excellatron, Front Edge, Infinite Power Solutions, Mphase, Oak Ridge Micro-Energy, Planar Energy Devices, Tadiran ...

Componets and Modules: Analog Devices, Atheros, Coronis Systems, Dust Networks, Ember, Freescale, G2 Microsystems, GainSpan, GreenPeak, Jennic, Nanotron, Nordic Semiconductor, RFM, Texas Instruments, Zensys...

Perpetually Powered Wireless Sensor Systems: ABB, Crossbow, MicroStrain, GE Energy, Rockwell, Wireless Industrial Technologies (WIT)...

Research Organizations: Fraunhofer Institute, Georgia Institue of Technology, Holst Centre, IMEC, Imperial College of London, MIT, UC Berkeley, University of Neuchatel, University of Southampton, WIMS ...

 

 


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Table of Contents

Executive Summary
Methodology
Report Overview

Technology Forces
WSN Energy Sources
AC Power
Energy Storage Devices
Energy Harvesting
Portable Energy Sources
Batteries
Thin Film
Super Capacitors (Ultracapacitors)
Fuel Cells
Energy Harvesting
Ambient Energy Sources
Solar
Mechanical Energy
Piezoelectric
Induction/Electromagnetic
Thermal Energy
Innovation Areas
Wireless Sensor Network Communications
WSN Protocols
802.15.4
ZigBee
Z-Wave
WiFi
Bluetooth
EnOcean
IP Sensor Networks
Power Management
Radios & Protocols
Node Synchronization
Sampled Listening
Microprocessors

The Market Opportunity
Market Drivers
Top Six Wireless Sensor Network Markets
WSN Units by Power Source
Labor Costs from Changing Batteries
Global Energy Harvesting Units

Industrial
Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
Key Companies
Applications
End User Perspectives
Global Forecasts
Wireless Sensor Network Units
Energy Harvesting Units
Labor Costs

Commercial Buildings
Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
Key Companies
Applications
End User Perspectives
Global Forecasts
Wireless Sensor Network Units
Energy Harvesting Units
Labor Costs

Residential
Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
End User Perspectives
Key Companies
Applications
Global Forecasts
Wireless Sensor Network Units
Energy Harvesting Units
Labor Costs

Medical
Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
Key Companies
Applications
Global Forecasts
Wireless Sensor Network Units
Energy Harvesting Units
Labor Costs

Agriculture
Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
Key Companies
Applications
End User Perspectives
Global Forecasts
Wireless Sensor Network Units
Energy Harvesting Units
Labor Costs

Structural Monitoring
Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
Key Companies
Applications
Global Forecasts
Wireless Sensor Network Units
Energy Harvesting Units
Labor Costs

Expert Survey Results
Respondent Overview
Energy Harvesting Experience
Required Power Lifetimes
Energy Harvesting Awareness (by Type)

Best Target Markets for Energy Harvesting
Power Sources Pricing

Maintenance Costs

The Value System
Chipsets
RF Modules with Energy Harvesting
AdaptivEnergy/TI
AmbioSystems
EnOcean
KCF Technologies
Perpetually Powered WSN Systems
Crossbow Technology
GE Energy
Microstrain
Wireless Industrial Technologies (WIT)
WSN Power Sources
Energy Harvesting
Intellectual Property
Battery Technologies & Fuel Cells
Intellectual Property
Research Organizations

Power & Performance Simulations
Summary
Industrial
General Test Set-Up
Transmit Rate Lifetime
Harvesters
Costs
Buildings
General Test Set-Up
Transmit Rate Lifetime
Harvesters
Costs
Crop Monitoring
General Test Set-Up
Battery Lifetime
Harvesters
Costs

List of Figures

Figure 1: Capacitors Cost (1996 -2010)
Figure 2: Energy Harvesting Driver Strength by Market
Figure 3: Global WSN Annual Units by Market (2007-2012)
Figure 4: WSN Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Figure 5: Top Six Markets - Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2005-2015)
Figure 6: Top Six WSN Markets - Global Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Figure 7: Industrial – Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
Figure 8: Industrial – Percent of Devices Continuously Monitored
Figure 9: Industrial – Number of Wireless Sensors Currently Deployed
Figure 10: Industrial – Planned Wireless Applications
Figure 11: Industrial – WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Figure 12: Industrial – Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Figure 13: Industrial – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2007-2012)
Figure 14: Buildings – Energy Harvesting Drivers
Figure 15: Buildings – Number of WSN Nodes Deployed
Figure 16: Buildings – Planned WSN Solutions within 18 Months
Figure 17: Buildings– WSN Planned by Market
Figure 18: Buildings – WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Figure 19: Buildings – - Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Figure 20: Buildings – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2007-2012)
Figure 21: Residential – Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
Figure 22: Residential – Current wireless home control installation experience
Figure 23: Residential – Percent of home controls market to be wireless in 2012
Figure 24: Residential – WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Figure 25: Residential – Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Figure 26: Residential – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2007-2012)
Figure 27: Medical – Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
Figure 28: Medical – WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Figure 29: Medical – Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Figure 30: Medical – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2007-2012)
Figure 31: Agriculture – Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
Figure 32: Agriculture – Current Wireless Sensor Applications
Figure 33: Agriculture – End Node Power Sources by Percentage
Figure 34: Agriculture – WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Figure 35: Agriculture – Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Figure 36: Agriculture – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2007-2012)
Figure 37: Structural – Energy Harvesting Market Drivers
Figure 38: Structural – - WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Figure 39: Structural – Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Figure 40: Structural – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2006-2015)
Figure 41: Respondent by Type
Figure 42: Radios/protocols used with Energy Harvesting
Figure 43: Battery/self-powered Nodes
Figure 44: Required Power Lifetimes
Figure 45: Energy Harvesting Awareness by Type
Figure 46: WSN Markets with Greatest Potential for Energy Harvesting
Figure 47: Energy Harvesting Max Price
Figure 48: One-Time Battery Power Cost
Figure 49: One-Time Battery Maintenance Cost
Figure 50: WSN Perpetual Power Solutions Value System
Figure 51: Dust Networks’ SmartMesh System
Figure 52: GreenPeak Technologies Wireless Module
Figure 53: AmbioSystems Self-powered Wireless Mote
Figure 54: EnOcean Battery-less Wireless Sensors
Figure 55: Crossbow’s eKo Pro Series System
Figure 56: Solar Powered Seismic Sensors on Corinth Bridge, Greece
Figure 57: WIT/Sentilla Mote Powered by Thermal Generator
Figure 58: Industrial End Node - AA (2) Battery Life in Years vs Transmission Rate
Figure 59: Industrial Router - AA (2) Battery Life in Years vs Transmission Rate
Figure 60: Industrial End Node -- Vibration (.1g) Required Harvester Size
Figure 61: Industrial Router - Vibration (.1g) Required Harvester Size
Figure 62: Industrial End Node -- Battery AA (2) vs Harvester Vibration (.1g) Cost per Year
Figure 63: Industrial Router - Battery AA (2) vs Harvester Vibration (.1g) Cost per Year
Figure 64: Buildings End Node - AA (2) Battery Life in Years vs Transmission Rate
Figure 65: Buildings Router - AA (2) Battery Life in Years vs Transmission Rate
Figure 66: Buildings End Node - Light (indoor) Required Harvester Size
Figure 67: Buildings Router - Light (indoor) Required Harvester Size
Figure 68: Buildings End Node - Battery AA (2) vs Harvester Light (indoor) Cost per Year
Figure 69: Buildings Router - Battery AA (2) vs Harvester Light (indoor) Cost per Year
Figure 70: Crop Mtrg End Node - AA (2) Battery Life in Years vs Transmission Rate
Figure 71: Crop Mtrg Router - AA (2) Battery Life in Years vs Transmission Rate
Figure 72: Crop Mtrg End Node- Light (outdoor) Required Harvester Size
Figure 73: Crop Mtrg Router - Light (outdoor) Required Harvester Size
Figure 74: Crop Mtrg End Node - Battery AA (2) vs Harvester Light (outdoor) Cost per Year
Figure 75: Crop Mtrg Router - Battery AA (2) vs Harvester Light (outdoor) Cost per Year

List of Tables

Table 1: Global WSN Annual Units by Market (2007-2012)
Table 2: WSN Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Table 3: Top Six Markets - Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2005-2015)
Table 4: Top Six WSN Markets – - Global Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Table 5: Industrial – WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Table 6: Industrial – Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Table 7: Industrial – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2006-2015)
Table 8: Buildings – WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Table 9: Buildings – Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Table 10: Buildings – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2006-2015)
Table 11: Residential – WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Table 12: Residential – Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Table 13: Residential – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2006-2015)
Table 14: Medical - WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Table 15: Medical – Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)
Table 16: Medical – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2006-2015)
Table 17: Agriculture – WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Table 18: Agriculture – Energy Harvesting Units (2007-2012)

Table 19: Agriculture – Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2006-2015)
Table 20: Structural – WSN Annual Units by Power Source (2007-2012)
Table 21: Structural – Energy Harvesting Penetration Rate (2007-2012)

Table 22: Structural –Annual Battery Change Labor Costs (2006-2015)
Table 23: Energy Harvesting Developers -- Profiles
Table 24: Battery, Thin-film, and Fuel Cell Providers -- Profiles
Table 25: Research Organizations-- Profiles



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